Field : Tourism Development

Tourism in Sri Lanka – Research study on how Colombo became the fastest growing global tourist destination in 2015

Sri Lanka is a small island in the Indian Ocean (approximately 65, 610 sq.km in area) is situated at the foot of the South Asian subcontinent. Colombo, the commercial capital of the country was one of the key sea ports in the colonial Indian Ocean. Sri Lanka is about 400 kilometers (273 miles) in length and about 220 kilometers (137 miles) at its widest point. Set in the Indian Ocean between India and the Maldives, Sri Lanka is small – at 41,000 square miles, smaller than Ireland. But it boasts eight UNESCO-listed sites, wildlife including elephants and leopards, picture-postcard beaches, and of course famed tea plantations. When Sri Lanka’s 26-year civil war ended in 2009, a multi-billion-pound modernisation programme was launched: upgrading the national road network; restoring long-neglected colonial buildings and opening a raft of new hotels. The MasterCard Index of Global Destination Cities ranks cities in terms of the number of their total international overnight visitor arrivals and the cross-border spending by these same visitors in the destination cities, and gives visitor and passenger growth forecasts for 2015. It was found that Sri Lanka’s capital city, Colombo, leads the pack, followed by Chengdu, the provincial capital of China’s Sichuan province. This study intends to evaluate and find the factors for status and how Sri Lanka is maintain this growth as a small South Asian island  country.


 

Field : Climate Change Adaptation

Challenges & Issues in Climate Change  -“How vulnerable Sri Lanka as a small island country”

Sri Lanka has a tropical climate because of its location between 6 and 10 degrees north of equator. The island is exposed to moisture-laden winds from the southwest and the north –east but despite this favorable position, Sri Lanka has extensive areas of water deficit. A greater part of the country at times experiences dry spells extending over several months in recent years due to changes in climatic conditions.  Sri Lanka suffers almost annually from droughts and floods. Cyclones and landslides are problems directly related to water resources. Sri Lanka is a country which has an average annual rainfall of more than 2000 mm. However the problem is the rainfall variability in Sri Lanka is second highest among Asia-pacific countries. The country is finding it increasing difficult to supply water to the growing urban centers. Sri Lanka’s biggest challenge is to make use of high seasonal rainfall which even in the dry zone stand at 1000 mm and its extensive resource of inland water bodies. This research project will look into the nature and extent of Sri Lanka’s changing climate situation as a small island and what we have learned from global  climate variability and  changes as a  small island country


 

Field : Women’s Studies

Gender and Power Politics- “A case study on Women & Grass root Democracy in Sri Lanka”

Background

Sri Lanka is one of the most backward democratic countries in the world when it comes to providing the opportunities for women to participate in local government. There are only 77 women elected out of the 3902 members local Councils. The fact that women, who make up 52 per cent of the population of the island, represent  only 1.97 per cent of overall local government in stark contrast to the rest of South Asia. In neighboring India and Pakistan, females represent 33 per cent of local government; in Bangladesh 30 per cent of local government representatives are women while the figure for Nepal is 20 per cent. The paradoxical situation is that Sri Lanka has the Asia’s best statistics for women in many areas such as literacy, health, life expectancy and women have held the highest political status as President and the Prime Ministers. Sri Lanka is the first country in the whole of Asian region to win political rights and women had the right to vote 70 years ago. In addition, the breakdown of law and order, the rise in crime and violence during the election periods, corruption, and the flagrant abuse and misuse of political power for personal advantage all contribute to make Sri Lanka one of the  world’s most violent and undemocratic place for women to engage in politics. Initiatives taken by political parties, NGOs, women’s associations and other civil society organizations to increase women’s participation in local elections and for educating women voters have been marginal so far. However, in all types of elections polling has been high in and the turn out of female and male voters has been almost the same. Thus a need for special efforts to increase the participation of women in voting itself does not seem to exist.  Almost all political parties in the country have their women’s wings and the membership is given a basic political education by the party. But these programs do not aim particularly to increase women’s participation in local elections. A few women NGO’s, in some parts  the country have launched program to increase female participation in all aspects of political activity and have also taken up issues such as prevention of violence at elections.


Model paper

From barriers to limits to climate change adaptation: path dependency and the speed of change

ABSTRACT

Research on the barriers and limits to climate change adaptation identifies many factors, but describes few processes whereby adaptation is constrained or may indeed fail to avoid catastrophic losses. It often assumes that barriers are by and large distinct from limits to adaptation. We respond to recent calls for comparative studies that are able to further knowledge about the underlying drivers of barriers and limits to adaptation. We compare six cases from across Australia, including those in alpine areas, rivers, reefs, wetlands, small inland communities, and islands, with the aim of identifying common underlying drivers of barriers and limits to adaptation. We find that the path-dependent nature of the institutions that govern natural resources and public goods is a deep driver of barriers and limits to adaptation. Path-dependent institutions are resistant to change. When this resistance causes the changes necessary for adaptation to be slower than changes in climate, then it becomes a limit to adaptation.

Key words: communities; cultures; ecosystems; markets; path dependence; transformation; values

Ecology and Society 20 (3): 5. [online] URL: http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol20/iss3/art5/